Utilization of renewable feed stocks

Growing demand for chemicals and fuels driven by components like over-population, the threat of global warming and the dearth of fossil resources, strain our resource system and constrain the development of sustainable and innovative blueprint for the chemical industry. Our society is currently experiencing restriction imposed by our resource system, which steers industry to increase its overall efficiency by upgrading existing processes or finding new uses for food waste. Food waste comes into view with a significant prospective as a raw material for the production of fuels and chemicals. Recent studies will focus on the use of many renewable feed stocks like cashew shell nut liquid, waste cooking oil, citrus peel etc in countries such as the UK, China, Canada ,Spain caused by its unique structural features, abundant availability and low cost cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is considered as a key starting material for the production of many chemicals and products (paints and varnishes, laminating resins, rubber compounding resins, cashew cements etc)by taking advantage of the three reactive sites, namely, aromatic ring , phenolic hydroxyl, and unsaturation(s) in the alkenyl side chain.

 

In order to shrink the competition between fuels and food production, researchers are endeavor to the utilization of wastes and their by-products as raw materials for the production of chemical. Household food wastes are being produced in large quantities in European country and their handling can be a challenge. In addition, their disposal can cause severe environmental issues as they emit greenhouse gases.

Presently, many biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol are largely produced from consumable food materials. Various edible plant oils from rapeseed, soybean, and canola oils are used for the production of biodiesel. Chemical biodiesel production process is called transesterification. Preparation of biofuels from consumable food materials is ascribed for the reason of food insufficiency and a food vs fuel debate is already agonizing. Alternatively, nonedible feedstocks can also be used for the production of biofuels. Soapunt seed, Pongamia, Jatropha curcas and other nonedible plant oils are already used for the preparation of biodiesel .

It is very clear from the above discussion that environmental pollution and impending shortage of fossil fuels have concentrate the awareness of researchers largely on the utilization of renewable feed stocks. Additionally, scientists and strategist are consigning many efforts to use non consumable and zero cost food wastes for fuel and energy production to reduce the direct rivalry between fuel and food. It is a known fact that food wastes are generated in large quantities and their handling is a big challenge. As discussed earlier, these food wastes are potential resources of chemical, biofuels as they contain considerable amount of carbohydrates and lipids. Thus, zero value food waste can be used as an important resource for the preparation of low-cost biofuels. Research by various scientists is currently underway for the preparation of biodiesel and bioethanol from food waste. The work emphasizes 2nd generation food-waste valorization and strategies of re-use for the fabrication of higher value and marketable products rather than conventional food waste processing like composting or incineration for energy recovery.

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