Employment Related Skill Development & Its Impact on Return Migration

Migration is a process where people adjust their living conditions based on the prevailing circumstances. Both push and pull factors are responsible for migration from rural to urban. Pull factors like better job opportunities, better education and healthcare facilities, access to public goods often play an influential role in this regard. That is not the only cause of attraction of people from one place to other. There may be another group which we often termed as internally displaced people, who are forced to migrate may be due to certain climatic conditions like, earthquake flood, drought or due to political violence.

Whatever may be the reasons for migration, this movement is sure to create an impact in the place of origin. Now we need to analyze the bearing of the impact, whether it is positive or negative. Migration related literatures highlight on both the aspects but it needs to be observed, in case younger people move, then it obviously is a negative impact on the livelihood of the people who are left behind. As most of the young working population is moving, older population has to work for a longer duration in various income generating activities thus creating a social imbalance in that region. Losing manpower also creates a havoc impact on the overall productivity in that region. On the other hand it can be seen that, those who are moving while returning back also bring finance as well as expertise to their local area which help to bring much needed growth of the region. But this is a time consuming process and a good lot of uncertainty is also involved. This works favorably only if the migrants have decided to comeback to their respective place of origins, if not then the negative impact of the same will create regional imbalance.

The said movement also brings the problem of urbanization which may create unnecessary pressure on urban population and hence the poor condition of urban people worsens further in terms of accessing basic facilities.

If the true cause of movement can be ascertained then it can be seen that lack of income generating opportunities along with low skills often forcing people to move and to restrict this movement both these two factors should be enhanced in their respective place of origins. Considering this aspect, focus should be given for proper development of educational infrastructure in the district. Educating the people would not only be sufficient, focus should be on their skill development. The approach should not be to educate them but to educate them in such a manner so that their educational knowledge can be implemented in a meaningful manner. It should be a blend of traditional educational system along with skill based training. Academics only will scarcely have any focus on future employment opportunities. As a result of this many people are dropping out from the formal educational system. It has been estimated at a KPMG report by National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) that approximately 95 lakhs children are taking admission at the primary level, but ultimately 11 lakhs students are able to complete their higher education. Thus, approximately 84 lakhs students are dropping out at various levels. Thus, this creates a huge demand supply gap at the industry level. It may be the situation that industry is growing, but the people living in that district are not employable due to lack of skills. This is an important issue which needs to be addressed first before we are speaking about growth of industry. Because, whatever may be the nature of industry, big or small, without skill development this will failed to meet the industry requirement. Only creating opportunities in local area will not stop the flow of people unless and until the people are not skilled enough to be absorbed in those industries. Thus, failing to get an opportunity in local industries they are migrating to do some odd jobs for survival purposes and facing both financial as well as physical exploitation.



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