Human life is totally dependent on technology. Every day is a new adventure and technology constantly improves the space around us, helps us to evolve, and be better!
It took years to be what it stands as today, firmly footed. As a comprehensive term, technology is the invention of tools and techniques. It is closely associated with the history of the human race.
During the early Stone Age, or the Paleolithic Age, when man was just a wild cave dweller and was a nomad, the major technologies were tied to survival and defence, hunting-gathering, and food preparation. Thus evolved crude stone tools and weapons like choppers or scrapers. They were mostly large sized and also blunt in nature. In the next stage, multiple blades were formed from a single core stone. They were smaller and finer structures. In the later Stone Age, or the Neolithic age, polished stone tools were made from a variety of hard rocks such as flint, jade, jadeite and greenstone. These tools were much lighter and finer.
The shift from nomadic to the agricultural settlement of the Neolithic Age can be inferred from a range of archaeological evidences like ancient tools, and cave paintings. In the Copper- Bronze age there was development of agriculture with which came animal domestication and the adoption of permanent settlements. This led to the development of metal smelting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the materials of choice for the making of tools and implements. However, stone tools were not rendered obsolete.
The Iron Age involved the adoption of iron smelting technology. It generally replaced bronze, and made it possible to produce tools which were stronger, lighter and cheaper. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last major step before the development of written language, though again this was not universally the case. In Europe, large hill forts were built. Existing forts from the Bronze Age were expanded and enlarged. Land was cleared using the more effective iron axes, providing more farmland to support the growing population. This furthered permanent settlement.
Medieval technology is said to have laid the background for western technology. Mechanical clocks, spectacles, vertical windmills, pintle-and-gudgeon rudders, lateen sails, the dry compass, the horseshoe and the astrolabe were introduced, to name only a few. The development of plate armour, steel crossbows, counterweight trebuchets and cannon led to the upgradation of military technology.
The Renaissance was a lease of fresh breath from the darkness of the preceding age. Note books of the Renaissance masters such as Taccola and Leonardo da Vinci throw a deep insight into the mechanical technology then known and applied. Architects and engineers were inspired by the structures of Ancient Rome, and men like Brunelleschi created the large dome of Florence Cathedral as a result. Military technology developed rapidly with the widespread use of the cross-bow and powerful artillery. Powerful families like the Medici were strong patrons of arts and sciences. With the invention of the printing press, a series of books and journals came to be published, the first being the Bible. Moreover, an age of exploration was unleashed. Francis Bacon, Vasco da Gama, Cabral, Magellan and Christopher Columbus explored the world in search of new trade routes for their goods and contacts with Africa, India and China to shorten the journey. Maps were made, routes were discovered. In fact, cartography evolved successfully at this time.
The Industrial Revolution of nineteenth century England is characterized by a series developments- textile manufacturing, mining, metallurgy and steam engine, steam boat and railway and also the use of coal as a cheap form of fuel. Coal converted to coke gave the blast furnace and cast iron and a range of structures could be created, such as The Iron Bridge.
In the 20th century a lot of research was done on modernizing science and technology. New technology improved communication and transport, as well as advancements in electronic computing and jet engines were made. Radio and telephone, television, computer, nuclear power, rockets, and missiles, air conditioning machines, refrigerators, medical cures were some of the most important technological developments of the 20th century. One of t5he landmarks is definitely Armstrong’s landing on the moon.
In the 21st century Broadband Internet access became commonplace in most countries. Technology came in the form of smart phones, android, wireless Internet on smart phones, multimedia, LCD, LEDs, solar cells, integrated circuits, wireless power devices. Researches on quantum computers, nanotechnology, bioengineering/biotechnology, nuclear technology, superconductivity, the memristor, and green technologies such as alternative fuels. Space missions are launched- in the orbit, discovering new planets and solar systems, the most significant being the satellites sent to Mars. Taking up eco-friendly measures, solar, wind, tidal, thermal, and geo thermal power plants are installed as sources of renewable energy.
And today, technology is indispensible to us.